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paadha. Legs.

paaramaartha. Fool's goal.

Paaramarthika. Relating to the highest truth, Atma.

paasa (paasha). Bond.

paathra-dhaari. Actor, competent person.

paayu. Excretory organs.

pada (padha). Word, speech, sign, position, step.

padartha (padha-artha). Word-meaning; thing, object.

padartha-bhavana (padhaartha-bhaavana). Non-cognition of material objects.

padma (padhma). 1,000 billion.

padma (padhma). Lotus.

padmasana (padmaasana). Lotus-like posture.

pakora. Indian spicy hot snack.

Pampa (Pampaa). A lake in Kishkindha near which Sugriva stayed.

pancha. Five.

pancha-agni. The five fires.

pancha-akshari. Five syllables.

pancha-bhuthas (-bhuuthas). Five basic elements.

Panchadasi (Panchaadhashi). Work on Vedanta, by Madhava.

Pancha-jana. Ogre who swallowed Sandipani's son.

panchaka. Five-fold.

pancha-kosas (-koshas). Five sheaths of the individual: food, air, mind, intellect, bliss.

Panchanada (Panchanadha). Punjab region; land of five rivers.

pancha-prana (-praana). Five vital airs of the human body.

Panchavati (Panchavatee). A place on the southern bank of the Godavari river where Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana lived for some time while in exile. It got its name because of the five banyan trees that stood there in a circle.

Pandava (Paandava). Sons of Pandu; family of 5 brothers that fought the Kauravas: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. See Mahabharatha.

pandit (pandith). Learned scholar, wise man.

panditya (paandithya). Scholarship.

Pandu (Paandu). Father of the Pandavas and brother of Dhritharashtra and Vidura.

pani (paani). Hand.

papa (paapa). Also papa-karma. Evil deeds, demerit, sin.

para (paraa). Higher, beyond, supreme, best.

para-akasa (para-aakaasha). Supreme space.

Paraasara (Paraashara). Grandson of Vasishta. Husband of Sathyavathi and father of Vyasa.

Paraath-para. The Omniself, That which is beyond the Beyond.

para-bhakthi (paraa-bhakthi). Supremest devotion.

Para-brahman. Universal Absolute Brahman.

Para-brahma-swarupa (-svaruupa). The form of the absolute Supreme.

Para-brahma-vasthu. The Absolutely and Supreme Real.

para-krama (paraakrama). Adventure.

param. Beyond.

Param-aartha. Highest good; highest goal beyond and above this material world, highest Truth.

Param-aartha-drishti (-dhrishti). Supra-vision; highest vision of truth.

Param-aartha Vahini (Vaahini). Stream of spiritual values, highest truth.

parama-arthika-jivan (paaramaarthika-jeevan). Supersensory spiritual life.

parama-hamsa. Realized sage.

Param-aiswarya (-aishvarya). Highest potency, felicity, wealth.

Paramam-vyoma. Great Protector.

Param-ananda (-aanandha). Highest bliss, union with Brahman.

Parama-pada (-padha). Name for the Godhead, meaning "Limitless Open"; the Highest Abode of Peace; highest stage of spirituality; final emancipation.

Parama-purusha. The supreme Spirit.

parama-purushas. The highest souls.

parama-santhi (-shaanthi). Highest peace.

Param-atma (-aathma). Supreme Self, Supreme Atma.

Param-atma-swarupa (-aathma-svaruupa). Embodiment of the Supreme Lord.

Param-atma-thathwa (-aathma-thatthva). Supreme Atmic principle.

Param-eswara (Parameshvara). Supreme Lord, highest Godhead, Siva.

Param-jyothi. Highest revelation, supreme light, divine intelligence.

para-prakriti (paraa-prakrithi). Higher world, nature.

parartha (paraa-artha). Higher good, truth.

para-sakthi (paraa-shakthi). Universal cosmic energy; supreme energy.

Para-sakthi (Paraa-shakthi). Supreme Goddess, embodiment of highest energy.

Parasurama (Parashu-raama). An incarnation of Vishnu as man, born to destroy the arrogance of the wicked Kshatriya kings.

Para-thathwa (paraa-thatthva). Absolute supreme principle.

para-vidya (paraa-vidhyaa). Spiritual science.

parigraha. Accepting help from others.

pariksha (pareeksha). Search, quest, test.

Parikshith (Pareekshith). Emperor of Kuru dynasty; grandson of Arjuna and son of Abhimanyu.

parinami (parinaami). Change, transformation.

paripurna (paripuurna). Full, complete, entire.

Paripurna (Paripuurna). Godhead, meaning the Fullest Full.

paripur-natha (paripuur-nathaa). Self-sufficiency.

parisuddha (parishuddha). Purity.

parithyajya. Abandon, cast aside.

Parivrajaka Upanishad. See Narada-parivrajaka Upanishad.

Parjanya. God of rain.

parnasala (parnashaala). Leaf-hut, arbor.

paroksha. Unseen, invisible.

paroksha-jnana (-jnaana). Indirect or mediate spiritual wisdom.

paropakara (paropakaara). Service to others.

Partha (Paartha). "Son of Earth (Prithvi)". Name for Arjuna.

Parvathi (Paarvathee). Siva's consort.

paschimotthaasana. Seated forward bend.

pasu (pashu). Animal, bull.

pasu-balam (pashu-balam). Animal strength.

pasu-patha-astra (pashu-pathaasthra). Siva's missile.

pasupathi (pashupathi). Master of his animal qualities.

Pasupathi (Pashupathi). Lord of animals or individualized souls; name for Siva.

pasu-pathi-balam (pashu-pathi-balam). Strength of the lord of animals.

Pasu-pathi (Paashupathi). Name for Siva.

pasu-pathopaasana (paashu-pathopaasana). Siva worship.

pasyathi (pashyathi). Looks outward.

Patala (Paathaala). Deepest hell; one of the seven regions under the earth; the abode of serpents and demons.

patalahoma (paathaalahoma). Ritual to ensure victory.

patali (paatalee). A tree with blossoms that don't turn into fruit.

Patanjali (Pathanjali). Author of the Yoga Sutras, which form the foundation of the yoga system of Indian philosophy. See raja-yoga.

pathi-vratha. Chaste and loyal to the husband.

pathi-vratha dharma (-vrathaa-dharma). Duty of a chaste wife to husband.

pathni. Housewife.

pathya-pathi (pathyaa-pathi). Master of the path.

pattabhisheka (patthaabhisheka). Coronation.

Paundraka. Demonic king of ancient Karusha; challenged Krishna and was destroyed.

Pavini (Paavanee). Tributary of the Ganga, flowing eastward.

payasam (paayasam). Food, made with sweetened milk.

phala-thyaga (-thyaaga). Renunciation of the fruit of action.

pindanda (pinda-anda). Inner principle of all the duality; microcosmos.

pingala-naadi-marga (-maarga). Path of the psychic nerve current, terminating in the right nostril; solar path.

Pippalada (Pippalaadha). Ancient sage renowned for penance; a great preceptor of spiritual knowledge.

pithaa. Father

pitha-ambara (peetha-ambara). Yellow cloth.

pitri (pithri). Forefather, ancestor, manes.

pitri-yana (pithri-yaana). Path of ancestors, through which the soul ascends to the Lunar World to enjoy the benefits of ritual works.

pitru-loka (pithru-loka). World of the fathers.

poshana. Protection, nourishment, support, growth.

pourusha. Vitality, valour.

praajna. The conscious inner individual Self.

praani. Living unit.

praathah-sandhya. Dawn worship of the Lord.

prabha (prabhaa). Brilliance.

Prabhasa-kshetra (Prabhaasa-kshethra). Celebrated place of pilgrimage on the west coast near Dwaraka.

Prabhuki. Dear Lord.

Prachetas (Prachethas). Valmiki's father.

Prachinabarthi (Praacheenabarhi). Grandson of Emperor Prithu. He carpeted world with darbha grass with its head turned toward the east and thus got his name.

pradhana (pradhaana). Primordial matter; source of material world according to sankhya.

Prahastha. Son of Ravana and minister of Ravana.

Prahlada (Prahlaadha). Son of the demon king Hiranyakasipu. As a boy, he was beaten, trampled, and cast into fire and water. But he saw only God everywhere, and repetition of the Name of God saved him. Once, Prahlada asserted that God was everywhere, and Narayana appeared in his man-lion form from within a pillar to destroy the king.

praja. Ruled, people.

praja-kama (-kaama). Desiring progeny.

Prajapathi (Prajaapathi). Creator of this world; God presiding over creation. Also called Manu, Surya's son.

prajna (prajnaa). Intuitive wisdom dependent upon individuality.

prajna. Deep sleep state.

prajnaa-maandya (-maandhya). Dullness of the intellect.

prajnana (prajnaana). Highest wisdom.

prakanthi (prakaanthi). Radiance, spiritual effulgence.

prakasa (prakaasha). Effulgence, luminosity.

prakriti (prakrithi). Causal matter, creation, nature.

prakriti-purusha (prakrithi-purusha). Nature-spirit.

prakriti-sakthi (prakrithi-shakthi). Power of nature.

Pralamba. Demon who attacked Krishna and was destroyed.

pralaya. Dissolution of the world.

prana (praana). Life-breath, life force, vital energy, the five vital airs.

prana-agni (praana-agni). Fire of breath.

Prana-atma (Praana-aathma). Superconsciousness that activates the vital airs.

prana-maya (praana-maya). Made of vital breath.

prana-maya kosa (praana-maaya kosha). The second, subtle sheath of man, consisting of the vital airs and the nervous system.

Prana-pati (Praana-pathi). Ruler of the vital airs.

pranava. Om, the sacred primordial sound principle.

pranava-naada (-naadha). Om sound.

pranava-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of Om.

prana-vayu (praana-vaayu). Life-giving breath.

prana-yama (praanaayaama). Breath control.

prapancha. Cosmos; created world composed of the five elements.

prapanna. One who surrenders to the Lord.

prapatthi. Surrender to the Lord, unflinching devotion.

prarabdha-karma (praarabdha-karma). Karma from previous births that determines the present life.

prasadha (prasaadha). Consecrated food.

prasanthi (prashaanthi). Supreme peace, equanimity.

Prasenajit (Prasenajith). Son of Susandhi.

prasna (prashna). Question.

Prasna Upanishad (Prashna Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it deals with six questions concerning Brahman by spiritual seekers to the sage Pippalada.

Prasthana Thraya (Prasthaana Thrayee). The three supreme spiritual texts: the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutra.

Prasusruka. Son of Maru and father of Ambarisha.

prathama. First or primordial.

Prathama-ja (-jaa). Primal-born; a name for Veda and for Hiranyagarbha.

Pratheendhaka. Son of Maru and father of Kirthiratha.

prathibha (prathibhaa). Intuition, thought.

prathi-bimba. Image, that with which an object is compared.

prathikopasana (pratheekopaasana). Worship of symbols.

prathi-rupo-pasana (prathi-ruupa-upaasana). Image adoration or worship.

pratyagatma (prathyagaathma). The inner ' I '.

pratyahara (prathyaahaara). Control of mind; withdrawing senses from the external world and turning them toward a higher consciousness.

pratyaksha (prathyaksha). Direct knowledge, perceptible, before one's eyes.

Pravardha. Son of Raghu and father of Sudarsana.

praveshtum. Entering.

pravritti (pravritthi). Worldly activity, attachment.

Prayag (Prayaaga). Holy place at the meeting point of Ganga, Yamuna, and the underground Saraswathi rivers. Modern Allahabad in the State of Uttar Pradesh. Bathing here would give great spiritual blessing.

prema. Divine or supreme love.

prema-rasa. Essence of love.

prema-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of love.

Prema Vahini (Vaahini). Stream of Divine Love, a book by Sathya Sai Baba.

preritha. Urged, impelled.

preyas. Pleasing, pleasurable sensation, worldly joy.

Prithu. King of great virtue, born in the line of Druva.

prithvi (prithvee). Earth, world.

priya. Also priyam. Love, dearness.

prusni (prushni). Purity, clarity, sanctity; a name for Veda.

Prusnigarbha (Prushnigarbha). "He who contains all clarity and wisdom"; name for Veda.

puja (puuja). Worship.

Pulastya (Pulasthya). Son of Brahma, father of Vishravas, and grandfather of Ravana.

pundit (pandith). Learned scholar, wise man.

punya. Virtuous deeds, good works, meritorious actions.

puraka (puuraka). Inhalation of air.

purana (puraana). Ancient.

Purana (Puraana). Any of a number of collections of ancient legends and lore embodying the principles of the universal, eternal religion and ethics. There are 18 Puranas, the most famous being the Mahabhagavatham and the Devi Bhagavatham.

Purana Purusha (Puraana Purusha). The Primal Person.

Purandara (Purandhara). A name for Indra.

Puranic (Puraanik). Relating to Purana.

purdah. Seclusion of women.

puri. Fried bread.

purna (puurna). Complete, full.

purna-ahuthi (puurna-aahuthi). Valedictory oblation.

purnathwam (puurnathvam). Perfection, fullness.

purohitha. Performer of rites (a priestly role in a sacrifical rite).

purtha (puurtha). Act of charity.

Puruhutha (Puruhuutha). Name for Indra, meaning "often invited" or "the god who is most called upon".

purusha. Perfect person, soul, self, indweller.

Purusha. Primeval Person, Supreme Spirit, Lord, God.

purusha-arthas. Goals of human life.

purusha-dharma. Dharma for man (for the male).

purusha-lakshana. Hallmark of man.

Purusha Sukta (Suuktha). A hymn in the Rig-veda.

Purushothama (Purushotthama). The supreme Lord of all.

purvaja (puurvajaa). Primeval, born before.

purva mimamsa (puurva meemaamsa). Inquiry into or interpretation of the ritualistic action part of the Veda.

Purva Mimsamsa (Puurva Meemaamsa). A text by Jaimini on the early school of Mimamsa philosophy.

purva paksha. Technique of raising an objection to expound truth.

purva-samskara (puurva-samskaara). Prior purification, or past impressions leaving an impact on present life.

Pushkara. Bharatha's second son.

Pushpaka. Kubera's chariot; used by Rama to go home.

pushpaka-vimaana. Divine aerial chariot fashioned by Viswakarma.

Pushya. Sixth lunar mansion; auspicious constellation.

pusthaka. Book.

Puthana (Puuthaana). Ogress killed by Krishna.

putra (puthra). Son.

putra-kameshti (puthra-kaameshthi). Sacrifice prescribed for those wanting to beget a son.

Radha (Raadhaa). Cowherd maid, a chief devotee of Krishna; one of Lakshmi's forms.

raga (raaga). Sense of attachment, passion, affection; tune.

Raghu. Dilipa's son; famous king of the Solar dynasty.

Rahu (Raahu). A demon (a-sura), step-brother of Kethu. Both are also inauspicious planets; An eclipse is the phenomenon of Rahu 'swallowing the moon'.

raja (raaja). Ruler, king, member of ruling class.

raja-bhavan (raaja-bhavan). Palace.

raja-dharma (raaja-dharma). Rules relating to a king.

raja-guru (raaja-guru). Royal Preceptor.

raja-matha (raaja-maatha). Queen Mother.

rajarshi (raajarshi). Royal sage.

rajas. Passion, activity, restlessness, aggressiveness. Associated with colour red. See guna.

rajasic (raajasik). Adjective form of rajas, passionate, emotional.

rajasika-marga (raajasika-maarga). Path of passionate action.

rajasuya (raaja-suuya). Great sacrifice performed at a king's coronation.

raja-yoga (raaja-yoga). Royal yoga of meditation, detachment, and desirelessness. Eight-fold path of yoga developed by Patanjali, which includes control of the mind and withdrawal of the senses from the external world.

raja-yogi (raaja-yogi). Yogi on the path of royal yoga (raja-yoga).

rajoguna. Quality of passion, restlessness, aggressiveness. Associated with colour red. See guna.

rajya (raajya). Kingdom.

Rajyalakshmi (Raajya-lakshmee). Goddess of the kingdom; good fortune of the kingdom.

raksha. Saviour, protection.

rakshaka. Protector, amulet.

rakshasa (raakshasa). Demon, ogre.

rakshka-varna. Caste of protectors or guardians of law and order; the kshatriya caste.

rama (raama). Joy, delight. See Rama.

Rama (Raama). Avatar of the Thretha-yuga. Hero of the Ramayana; killed the wicked Ravana to rescue his wife Sita, who had been kidnapped. "Rama" means "he who pleases".

Rama-chandra (Raama-chandhra). Name for Rama.

Rama-Gita (Raama-Geetha). Name for the dialogue Yoga-vasishta.

Rama-katha (Raama-kathaa). Story of Rama.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Raamakrishna Paramahamsa). (1836 to 1886) Celebrated mystic; mastered all types of Yoga and also Christian and Islamic practices. Swami Vivekananda took his message of universal religion to the West. Married to Saradadevi.

Ramana Maharshi. Indian sage, 1879­1950, who taught the path of self-inquiry.

Ramanuja (Raamaanuja). Eleventh century spiritual teacher and interpreter of the Brahma Sutra; proponent of the ultimate oneness of the differentiated (visishta-adwaitha). Believed in a personal God reached by devotion and faith and the everlasting self-identity of the individual soul in communion with God as the goal of life.

Rama-rajya (Raama-raajya). The kingdom of Rama; the ideal ruler.

Ramayana (Raamaayana). The epic that narrates the story of Rama.

Ramdas (Raamdhaas). Maratha 17th century saint; author of work on religious duty; guru of the great King Sivaji.

ranjana. Pleasing, delighting.

rasa. Taste, sweetness, essence of enjoyment.

rasa-aswadana (-aasvaadhana). Enjoyment of bliss.

Rasa-kreeda (Raasa-kreeda). Divine dance of Krishna.

Rasatala (Rasaathala). A nether region; one of the lower worlds.

Rasmani (Raasmani). Rani Rasmani. Devotee of Ramakrishna; constructed a Kali Temple in Calcutta.

rathi. Attachment.

Rathi Devi (Rathee Dhevi). Goddess of love.

Rathnakara (Rathnaakara). The wayside robber who, because of the teaching of sages, repented and became Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana.

Ravana (Raavana). Lord of demons and king of Lanka, who abducted Sita (Rama's wife).

rechaka. Exhalation of air.

rekha. Geometry, line.

Rig-veda (Rik-vedha). First Veda composed by the sages, consisting of 1028 hymns. Oldest religious text in world.

Rig-vedic (Rik-vedhik). Of or relating to the Rig-veda.

rijuthwam (rijuthvam). Integrity, sincerity.

rik. Hymn or sacred verse, from the Rig-veda.

Rik-samhitha. Rig-veda. Samhitha means "collection".

Rik-veda. See Rig-veda.

Rishabha. A sage, the son of King Nabhi and the grandson of King Agnidra. He did tapas for many years in the forest.

rishi. Sage, wise man.

Rishi-krit (-krith). Creator of sages (rishis).

Rishyamuka (Rishyamuuka) hills. Mountain where Rama and Lakshmana met the sage Markandeya.

Rishyasringa (Rishyashringa). Hermit of family of Kasyapa; born from his father Vibhandaka's semen spilled upon viewing Urvasi.

rithwik (rithvik). Priest.

roga. Disease.

rogi. Sick person.

Rohini (Rohinee). Wife of Vasudeva and mother of Balarama.

Romapada (Romapaadha). King of the state of Anga; friend of Dasaratha.

Rubhu. A son of Brahma, a sage and an extraordinary scholar.

ruchi. Light, luster, beauty, pleasure, taste for.

Rudra (Rudhra). Vedic God of dissolution of the cosmos; named Siva in his auspicious or benevolent form; one of the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra/Siva.

rudraksha (rudhraaksha). A tree; its berries are used for making rosary beads.

Rukmini (Rukminee). Chief queen of Krishna.

Ruksharaja (Ruksharaaja). Monkey form created by Brahma. Was changed into a female, mothered Sugriva (through Surya) and Vali (through Indra), and was then changed back into a male.

rupa (ruupa). Form, figure, appearance.

rupa-laya (ruupa-laya). Dissolution of form.